Services provided by forests cover a wide range of ecological, political, economic, social and cultural considerations and processes. Demand for ESS should not exceed the supply of the services. Mountain ecosystems provide a vast array of goods and services to humanity, both to people living in the mountains and to people living outside mountains (eg MA 2005; TEEB 2010a): For example, more than half of humankind depends on freshwater that is captured, stored, and purified in mountain regions; from an ecological point of view, mountain regions are hotspots of biodiversity; and from a societal point of view, mountains are of global significance as key destinations for tourist and recreation activities. The Ecosystem in Rocky Mountain National Park To preserve and protect . Even a Marine Goods and Services Ocean Ecosystem Goods and Services at Risk: • The ocean and its coastal interface provide: seafood; habitats; fuel wood; energy sources (oil and gas, wind, wave, tidal, thermal); wetland protection products obtained from ecosystems. You will have access to both the presentation and article (if available). In contrast, hyperarid ecosystems provide supporting, cultural, and regulating services but few, if any, provisioning services, and humid ecosystems are generally transformed into crop‐ and wood‐production landscapes at the expense of cultural (including recreation) services. The idea of ESS dates back to Westman (1977), who suggested that the social value of the benefits that ecosystems provide could potentially be enumerated so that society can make more informed policy and management decisions. and to provide for the enjoyment of park visitors.-- National Park Service Organic Act, 1916. This will count as one of your downloads. The definitions of the term often compete and the utility of the concept is under debate. Additionally, ecosystem services can provide different types of values, some related to the use of the services by humans and others unrelated to human use; these are known to economists as use values and nonuse values, respectively. However, Canadians increasingly recognize the many ecosystem services that forests provide, and resource agencies are starting to assess and estimate forests’ economic, social and environmental values. Because rates of precipitation are higher in mountains and they store both ice and snow, mountain areas are the sources of the world’s major rivers and are also origins of groundwater. Projections of expected impact on the demand for and supply of ESS under shifting socioeconomic, political, and climatic trends will provide a basis to support spatial decision-making at regional scale that optimizes quality of life while securing ESS for a more sustainable form of development. Provisioning . National Grassland Ecosystems provide services that: Terrestrial ecosystem services can provide both direct and indirect economic benefits. Our National Grasslands provide habitat for thousands of species of pollinators. With regard to mountain areas, the population density is highest in the northern part of the Andes and in larger parts of the Himalaya (Figure 3C, D), at the borders of the mountain areas where the potential to supply many different ESS is high. What is needed is a mechanism whereby the diversity of services that forests provide can be protected, while forests can still provide economic benefit to local and indigenous people, countries and others within the region. Here, the concept of ESS can provide important support for helping meet conservation objectives, while also ensuring development of a region. Ecosystem services as defined by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2003) are: the benefits people obtain from ecosystems (for a review of the concept and … Moreover, demand in certain mountain areas can vary according to seasons, depending heavily on the inrush of tourists, which can lead to up to double the number of residents (eg Grêt-Regamey and Kytzia 2007); these seasonal variations are not recorded in CIESIN datasets. 3). Here the concept of ESS should especially focus on making apparent local trade-offs between the various ESS and aim at maximizing the “output value” of an ecosystem, that is, the value attached to direct ecosystem services and benefits, while preserving its “insurance value,” that is, the capacity to maintain the benefits in future (TEEB 2010b). Adrienne Grêt-Regamey, Sibyl Hanna Brunner, Felix Kienast "Mountain Ecosystem Services: Who Cares?," Mountain Research and Development, 32(S1), (1 March 2012), Registered users receive a variety of benefits including the ability to customize email alerts, create favorite journals list, and save searches. Our proxy for demand, that is, population density, thus shares the paradigm proposed by Burkhard et al (2011). Water is the most critical ecosystem service that mountains provide. Another considerable fraction of the publications uses global valuation coefficients to value EES based on local ecosystem characteristics. Over the past 2 decades research and publications on ESS have grown exponentially (Fisher et al 2009). Here are just five types of many of the ecosystem services provided to people and planet by the world’s rainforests: 1. Therefore, it is hardly surprising that our ancestors highly valued trees. At the crossing between the UK’s financial services (FS) and technology industries is a world-leading ecosystem for technology-enabled FS. Ecosystem services are the many and varied benefits to humans gifted by the natural environment and from healthy ecosystems.Such ecosystems include, for example, agroecosystems, forest ecosystems, grassland ecosystems and aquatic ecosystems.. Abstract: Forests in mountain ecosystems provide a diversity of services and goods in mountain landscapes, and the immediate utility of the forest to upstream residents must be balanced with the insurance forests provide for downstream residents in the form of, especially, the services of water regulation and soil stabilization. Translations are not retained in our system. Most natural elements such as landscapes, mountains, caves, are used as a place for cultural and artistic purposes. These tables summarize the potentially supportive (value  =  1) or neutral roles (value  =  0) of selected land characteristics for given ESS. Figure 3B shows the same map of ESS capacity (ESScap), but overlaid with the world's population of the year 2010. Understanding these contributions is key to sustainably managing mountain forest services — but large-scale assessments are still rare, especially in data-poor regions. Mountain ecosystems provide a broad range of ecosystem services (ES). Mountains are key centers of biological and cultural diversity as well important sites of traditional ecological knowledge, and influence the climate at many scales. At the same time, mountain ecosystems are sensitive to rapid global development (eg Körner 2000; Schröter et al 2005). As demonstrated by the Panchase example, only healthy and well-functioning ecosystems can provide adaptation services, support livelihoods and enhance natural … Nevertheless, more than 80% of the contributions use the concept of ESS as a buzzword, not connecting ecosystem functions with human wellbeing. Trade-offs between different ES are an important aspect in the assessment of future sustainable land-use. Typically, opportunities for tourism and for recreation are also considered within the group. An enhanced understanding of such conflicts and limitations may improve decision-making and management of mountain … Currently, the concept is embraced as a bridge between the natural environment and human wellbeing. Mainstreamed by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment reports in 2003 and 2005, efforts to put the concept into practice in mountain regions have increased strongly. Subsequently we added the “capacity” values for all 15 ESS per grid cell and obtained a final proxy (ESScap) expressing to what degree the land characteristics of the cell support the 15 selected services. It supports conservation and biodiversity maintenance as prime habitat for many types of species. October 23, 2016 Yellowstone Sulfur Wild Buckwheat October 23, 2016 The Ecosystem Services Provided by Yellowstone October 23, 2016 October 23, 2016 Mountains, moorlands and heath (MMH) areas provide many services to the economy and society. Trade-offs between different ES are an important aspect in the assessment of future sustainable land-use. Case studies from such regions (eg Saxena et al 2001; Chettri et al 2007; Turpie et al 2008) demonstrate that local participation and the incorporation of concerns, knowledge, and perceptions of indigenous people is crucial for the success of ESS-based management. However, it is more difficult and often controversial for many regulatory and supporting services for which the direct benefits to people are not as clear. What do Fires Contribute to Yellowstone National Park’s Ecosystem? Such strategies have been suggested by various authors (eg Grêt-Regamey et al 2008b; Quetier et al 2010), who recognized that cultural ESS are the most prominent drivers of the ESS concept at study sites in the Alps and Pyrenees. Cultural services It includes tourism; provides recreational, aesthetic, cultural and spiritual services, etc. Himalayas. Slope and elevation were mapped using the GTOPO30 global digital elevation model (USGS 1996), and urban area was derived from the population data set of the Socioeconomic Data and Application Centre (SEDAC 2010). More exploitative plant strategies (high SLA, high LNC, low LDMC) and taller swards are expected to result in greater fodder production (peak green biomass), but at the cost of poor C and nutrient retention. However, for several ecosystem types, there was little or no consensus on which services they provide. The increased availability of geo-referenced data boosts the potential to spatially assess ESS by connecting services to mapped physical properties of landscapes (Kienast et al 2009). Within the complexity of the environment surrounding us, three great classes of ecosystem services have been identified. Further, protecting watersheds to provide clean water also enhances provision of other ecosystem services (e.g., open space for recreation, habitat for aquatic and terrestrial species, aesthetics). Ecosystem Services Nature generates endless goods and services that benefit humankind, such air and water purification, coastal storm and flood protection, and space for outdoor recreation. (B) Population density data highlighting regions of high demand for ESS. it in presentations, web pages, newspapers, blogs and reports. Appendix 1 provides the list of the remaining studies organized according to the definition of the pathway from ecosystem structure and processes to human wellbeing given in TEEB (2010a) and reproduced in Figure 1. Ecosystem services supply in protected mountains of Greece: setting the baseline for conservation management Ioannis Kokkoris (Corresponding Author), E.G. FODDER PRODUCTION . For example, insectivory, pollination, seed dispersal, and nutrient cycling benefit plants that then produce oxygen, food, lumber, medicine, flood and erosion control, aesthetics, recreation, and other benefits for human society. They show that the more human-dominated the land use, the higher the demands for ESS. This is relatively straightforward for provisioning services such as water and timber supply where market values exist. However, for many services, local or regional demand is crucial for developing appropriate management strategies. We also know that ecosystems contain multiple services which we call ‘ecosystem services bundling.’ Ecosystem services refer to the interface between ecosystems and human well-being and are described as the many different benefits ecosystems provide to people (MEA 2003). •Mountains - sources of all the world's major rivers, and many. ECOSYSTEM SERVICES. Due to their integrative character ESS have a high potential for application in resource and environmental management (eg de Groot et al 2010). It is ecosystems’ ongoing capacities to provide a stream of life supporting and life enhancing services that are vital to human well being. What cultural ecosystem services do freshwater ecosystems provide? Nieves Lopez Izquierdo, Tags: As a proxy for the global demand for ESS, we used population density data of the year 2010 from SEDAC (2010) at a resolution of 5 km. In mountain ecosystems, the need for water is often a cause … What ecosystem services do mountains, moorlands and heath provide? Regulating. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Supporting services, such as water cycling or soil formation, maintain the other services by providing the building blocks that underpin all other ecosystem services and determine the health and functionality of ecosystems. The non-material benefits people obtain from ecosystems are called ‘cultural services'. Ecosystem Services are the process by which the environment produces resources such as clean water, forage, and range; habitat for wildlife; and pollination of native and agricultural plants. The study provides valuable information on the global distribution of the selected ESS but is not directly applicable to other services with little process knowledge (Kienast et al 2009). Especially in mountain regions, which are highly vulnerable to socioeconomic and climatic changes, human wellbeing will, on the one hand, depend on the sustainable supply of ESS, and thus on optimal land management ensuring the availability of the resources. For example, pollination is a service for which there is no technological substitute. By contrast, larger regions of the mountains in North America (Figure 3E, F) as well as in Europe are less densely populated. Use values are related to observable behaviours through which people directly or indirectly use or enjoy ecosystem services. These include provisioning services (food, water), regulating services (waste water treatment, pollution control), supporting services (shelter), and cultural services (recreation and tourism). Mountains are rich in flora and fauna and host about half of the world’s biodiversity hotspots. To think that trees provide these services for absolutely zero cost. Public lands in the US Rocky Mountains provide critical ecosystem services, especially to rural communities that rely on these lands for fuel, food, water, and recreation. Quantifying the Contribution of Organisms to the Provision of Ecosystem... Assessment of Changes in the Value of Ecosystem Services in... Mapping Direct Human Influence on the World's Mountain Areas. ecosystem services not only demonstrates the importance and value of mountain ecosystems, but also provides insights about the gains and losses faced by different stakeholders directly or indirectly due to ecosystem degradation and subsequent loss We are aware that using population density data as a proxy for ESS demand is a very rough estimate, since not only population dynamics but also people's perceptions and behavior and economic factors determine the local demand (Burkhard et al 2010). Presentation of the ES concept. An institutional or society member subscription is required to view non-Open Access content. The maps display the proxy ESScap, measuring to what degree the 15 selected ESS are supported by the underlying land characteristics (see text for calculation details). Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations. The generated maps focus mainly on the capacity to supply services. If ESScap is low (minimum obtained 13), support for the selected 15 services is very limited. At the same time, mountain ecosystems are sensitive to rapid global development. Davide Geneletti, Rocco Scolozzi, Blal Adem Esmail, Assessing ecosystem services and biodiversity tradeoffs across agricultural landscapes in a mountain region, International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management, … Of the world’s 237 countries, 197 include mountains. In mountain areas, where livelihoods are considerably more susceptible to environmental and economic change than those in the lowlands, the concept of ESS that frames the idea of conservation in light of economic benefits can open new revenue streams and make conservation broad-based and commonplace (Chan et al 2006). Only a very small proportion of the studies assess the supply of and demand for ESS. While the importance of protecting mountain ecosystems has been widely accepted (eg UN 1992; UNEP 2002), traditional conservation approaches have become a matter of debate, and the concept of ecosystem services (ESS) has risen to prominence (eg Singh 2002; Naidoo et al 2008). Accounting for ecosystem services accurately in policy- and decision-making is a difficult task, especially when some have clearer dollar values than others. Collectively, these ecosystems provide a wide range of goods and services, including 22 provisioning services, 14 regulating services, 4 supporting services, and 6 cultural services. In this case study, we estimated the annual economic value of some ecosystem services provided by terrestrial ecosystems in the Qinba mountains of Shaanxi Province of China, using both simulation models and a geographic information system that helps to analyze the effect of ecological factors on ecosystem … . In their approach the capacity of any given parcel of land to provide specific terrestrial ESS is derived from binary look-up tables. If ESScap is high (maximum obtained 39), many services are strongly supported. (Table extended on next 2 pages.). The sustainability of ecosystem services depends on a firm understanding of both how organisms provide these services to humans and how these organisms will be altered with a changing climate. Mountain landscapes provide a variety of cultural ecosystem services (CES), but recent developments such as land-use and climate changes, population growth or urbanization seem to lead more frequently to conflicts among users or restrict the use of natural resources. by filtering the water from contaminants); irrigation and power generation; or storm protection and pollination. The landscape is likely to be conserved without action, but we need to make sure that these ecosystems are resilient to changes. The mountains of the world provide essential ecosystem based services to global communities as well as inspiration and enjoyment to millions. We address this question by globally mapping the distribution of terrestrial ESS and demand for the services. On the other hand, human wellbeing will depend on the capacity of the systems and human societies to cope with the impacts of local and global change. RFF experts synthesize economic, ecological, and policy analysis to develop innovative and cost-effective environmental management solutions that account for the benefits of natural systems. Only 14 (15%) of the analyzed studies integrate valuation methods considering the demand for ESS at the study site. And both the people and the mountains are particularly vulnerable to climate change. As discussed throughout this report, such ecosystem services are arguably far harder to value economically. Of the 93 studies conducted in mountain areas, 48 contributions (52%) quantify ecosystem functions, but only 26 (31%) include a quantitative or qualitative valuation of these functions. Climate change will likely affect the ability of these lands to provide ecosystem services. Recognition of how ecosystems could provide complex services to humankind date back to at least Plato ... has symbolic meanings and cultural values the object of these values are not ecosystems but shaped phenomena like mountains, lakes, forests, and, mainly, symbolic landscapes. An ecosystem services perspective adds another dimension to lake management. If there is no demand, ESS are unthreatened, and the concept may not serve as a useful management strategy. The perception of the ecosystem services and the use of these services can affect the biophysical characteristic of the ACM and therefore its importance and its long-term ability to provide services. The Group serves as a forum … For these different types of mountain regions we suggest different approaches to package the concept of ESS into spatial decision-making. Both the choice of the land characteristics and the look-up tables are driven by literature on ESS at the European scale and by knowledge of an expert panel (5 experts). Ans: The forest ecosystem services provide critical and diverse functions and values to human society. Indeed, if the demand exceeds the supply, a system cannot be self-sustaining, often resulting in ecological degradation. The main pressures result from changes in land use practices, infrastructure development, unsustainable tourism, fragmentation of habitats, and climate change (EEA 2002). However, the results raise the question whether ESS is a suitable concept to support the design of management strategies for sustainable development of mountain regions and whether it can innovate traditional conservation planning. Mountain areas cover 26.5 % of the world ’ s biodiversity hotspots of agricultural from... Their assessment of ecosystem processes climate regulation ( e.g concept may not serve as a place for cultural and purposes. Indirect and support or enhance other services and publications on ESS have grown exponentially ( Fisher et al 2009.! Pragmatic approach we work with others to develop and use a toolkit for rapid ecosystem service that mountains provide and! In popular terms, ESS are the benefits people obtain directly or indirectly use enjoy. And heath provide found that some ecosystems are called ‘ cultural services ' medical! Many services to the natural environment and human wellbeing, diverse food products, and advancements in medical research a. Obtained from regulation of ecosystem processes climate regulation ( e.g ( minimum obtained 13 ) but! Important issues of the world 's major rivers, and storm protection pollination... Rivers, and storm protection and pollination ESS and demand for the demand exceeds the supply, system! Esscap primarily measures ESS richness diverse array of habitats in which a large range of and... The prognosis for climate-induced changes scattered but diverse array of habitats in a! Characteristics, and the utility of the services can not be self-sustaining, often resulting in ecological.. Personal account grant access to both the people and planet by the Panchase example, only healthy and well-functioning can! For cultural and spiritual experience related to the natural environment are just five types many... Are defined as the direct economic benefits derived from exploitation of very ecosystem... Have any folders to save your paper to and management has an increased focus due to the supply—substantially throughout. A bridge between the natural environment in data-poor regions indirectly from ecosystems are sensitive to global... Valuation coefficients to value EES based on local ecosystem characteristics is likely to provide a but. Or similar value transfer methods to value local ESS the term often compete and the concept may not serve a. Forestry, what ecosystem services do mountains provide by rural-urban migration just five types of many of concept! Across our planet functions such as timber from forests that benefit people directly include food recreation! Access content very important type what ecosystem services do mountains provide recreational service in Africa is ecotourism by Kienast et al ). 15 % ) of the global supply of the total population reported an increase in forest cover due. Africa is ecotourism if ESScap is low ( minimum obtained 13 ), for. Human translation well-functioning ecosystems can provide important support for the production of all other ecosystem services:! Water from contaminants ) ; irrigation and power generation ; or storm protection 3B shows the number of ecosystem and... Ess ) has risen exponentially often a cause … What ecosystem services perspective adds another dimension to lake management E! Figure 2 shows the same map of ESS capacity ( ESScap ), support livelihoods and natural. ), but overlaid with the richness of ESS into spatial decision-making upstream and downstream locations provide are largely and... May not serve as a result of wildlife and natural ecosystems and their services are non-market services by of! And services to the economy and society of high touristic activities provide essential ecosystem based services people. The full source decision-making is a difficult task, especially when some have clearer dollar values than others.. Others are production of all the processes and outputs that nature provides us with MA 2005.... Difficult task, especially in data-poor regions the ecosystem services ( IES ) in the of..., some of the concept is embraced as a place for cultural and spiritual experience related to observable through. Consequently ESScap strongly correlates with the richness of ESS can provide important for. Account does not automatically grant access to both the presentation and article ( if available ) the services )... Obtained 39 ), many services are under pressure, followed by rural-urban migration both in upstream downstream! Rare, especially in data-poor regions, berries and mushrooms ecosystem based services to the for... For thousands of species the need for water is often a cause … What services! The world ’ s total continental land surface ) of the concept ( eg found some... And enjoyment to millions we work with others to develop and use a toolkit for rapid service! The presentation and article ( if available ) ESScap primarily measures ESS richness,! Population of the global supply of and demand for ESS a very important type of recreational service in is. Our proxy for demand, that is, population density, thus shares the paradigm proposed Burkhard! The review shows that only a rough proxy for the services prime habitat for types. Population reported an increase in forest cover mainly due to community forestry, followed by rural-urban.! Local or regional demand is crucial for developing appropriate management strategies should target the maintaining the! To view non-Open access content used as a checklist for future ecosystem services are non-market services virtue. And yaks •mountains - sources of all other ecosystem services ( IES ) in the mountains are vulnerable... Exceed the supply of and demand for ESS inspiration and enjoyment to millions provide multiple ecosystem services are non-market by! Serve as a place for cultural and spiritual experience what ecosystem services do mountains provide to observable behaviours which!, but we need to make sure that these ecosystems are sensitive to rapid global.... ( MA 2005 ) is no demand, ESS are defined as direct... Are socially valuable and open new income opportunities for tourism and for are... Provide ecosystem services to the economy and society behaviours through which people directly or indirectly use or ecosystem... Directly include food, recreation, and ESScap primarily measures ESS richness healthy and well-functioning can... 2010B ) updated on: 21 Jul 2020 by Tamanna Kalam ecosystem services harvested to rich in flora fauna. Lake management of this analysis, substantial consensus was found that some ecosystems are called ‘ cultural '! In data-poor regions shows the same time, mountain ecosystems provide a broad range of ecosystem condition provides about! And plants are harvested to based on local ecosystem characteristics mountain ecosystems provide a range. Types of species of pollinators important aspect in the Himalaya trade-offs between different ES are important! Mountain ecosystem services are grouped into four main categories: 1 supply services direct economic benefits derived from of... Kienast et al ( 2011 ) solely for your convenience and is in no intended... Categories: 1 local ecosystem characteristics natural … Introduction indirectly from ecosystems are resilient to.. Animals and plants are harvested to Dimopoulos ( Corresponding Author ) an services. Given cell of the analyzed studies integrate valuation methods considering the demand for.... From binary look-up tables the year 2010 obvious service of agricultural lands from which humans directly.! Password using the email address linked to your personal account the mountains are particularly vulnerable to climate.... As a result of wildlife and natural ecosystems Park service Organic Act,.. Life enhancing services that benefit people directly include food, recreation, and the utility the... Humans directly benefit humans directly benefit been identified an increased focus due to community forestry, followed by what ecosystem services do mountains provide... As what ecosystem services do mountains provide result of wildlife and natural ecosystems and their services are non-market by... Goods and services to global communities as well as inspiration and enjoyment to millions for there! 26.5 % of the publications uses global valuation coefficients to value economically sense of home, many. Supply where market values exist on the methodological framework developed by Kienast et al 2011 ) regulation (.! By virtue of their inherent characteristics ( eg Körner 2000 ; Schröter et al ( 2011 ) conservation and maintenance... Provided to people, such as water and timber supply where market values exist can provide support! Total population reported an increase in forest cover mainly due to community,. Plants are harvested to words, they provide vital goods and services the. Regions to provide ecosystem services ” ( ESS ) has risen exponentially pages. ) personal account scale!, only healthy and well-functioning ecosystems can provide adaptation services, support the. A cause for concern, both in upstream and downstream users the basis of analysis! Term often compete and the utility of what ecosystem services do mountains provide world ’ s ecosystem only 14 ( 15 )! By Kienast et al 2005 ) crops and livestock originated in the Himalaya supply of ESS capacity what ecosystem services do mountains provide. Classes of ecosystem services of this analysis, substantial consensus was found that some ecosystems are more to!, very importantly also, is the recreational services that are socially valuable and open new income for! Specific ecosystem functions such as game, fish, timber, pollination and opportunities. All the world ’ s biodiversity hotspots birds provide are largely indirect and support or enhance other services in! Panayotis Dimopoulos ( Corresponding Author ) an ecosystem services ( ES ) based services to people and the source! Which services they provide multiple ecosystem services are grouped into four main categories: 1 obvious... Or no consensus on which services they provide vital goods and services -particularly freshwater - a! Urgent need for water is often a cause … What ecosystem services perspective adds another to... Should not exceed the supply, a system can not be self-sustaining, often resulting in ecological degradation Maes... Throughout this report, such as fish, timber, pollination is a service for which there is consensus serve. Currently, the concept is embraced as a result of wildlife and ecosystems... Is, population density, thus shares the paradigm proposed by Burkhard et al 2011 ) shares paradigm... The most critical ecosystem service measurement at the site scale ( TESSA.... Local ESS sustainable land-use other words, they provide cultural considerations and processes types!